Epidemiological Considerations and Differential Diagnoses of Mpox: A Narrative Review


  • Olanrewaju Falodun National Hospital abuja
  • Comfort Udu Department of Internal Medicine National Hospital Abuja


Mpox, previously called monkeypox, is a zoonotic disease of viral origin caused by a double-stranded DNA mpox virus that belongs to the Orthopox genus of the Poxviridae family. This condition was declared a disease of global public health concern in 2022. The progression of the rash of mpox from maculopapular lesions to vesicles and pustules, which eventually form crusts and scabs, gives rise to other diagnostic possibilities as it runs its course.

In the Nigerian setting, where advanced diagnostic facilities may not be readily available, the healthcare provider needs to understand the epidemiology of mpox infection and the relevant differential diagnoses to be considered in a resource-limited environment. This will enable earlier recognition of the disease, prompt treatment, and reduce transmission.

The objective of this paper is to review various studies that have discussed the epidemiology and differential diagnosis of mpox and discuss the epidemiology of mpox in the Nigerian setting. Additionally, it describes the relevant dermatologic conditions that should be considered as differential diagnoses within the environmental context before the appropriate confirmatory investigations are carried out.