Prevalence and Spectrum of Skin Disorders Among Children Attending the General Out-Patient Clinic of Federal Medical Center Lokoja Kogi State


  • Feyisayo Oyeleke FMC Lokoja
  • Sherifat Katibi
  • Gabriel Joseph
  • Aisha Jummai Bello


Background: Skin disorders are common in children and its prevalence varies with location. Epidemiological studies are therefore important in identifying the dermatological needs of children in an environment. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and spectrum of skin disorders of primary and secondary presentation among children.

Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 2,725 participants recruited consecutively and examined for skin disorders irrespective of their reason for presentation. Socio-demographic data were collected. Skin disorders were mainly diagnosed clinically with relevant laboratory investigations as indicated.

Results: Three hundred participants had skin disorders giving a prevalence of 11.0%. There were 305 skin diagnoses made. Skin disorders occurred mostly among males 176 (58.7%) and children less than 2 years 102 (34.0%). Skin infections and infestations were the predominant category 134 (43.9%) and fungal dermatoses were the most common 62 (47.6%). The common specific skin conditions were tinea capitis 47 (1.7%), seborrheic dermatitis 26 (1.0%), papular urticaria 23 (0.8%) and chickenpox 17 (0.6%). Among the 305 skin disorders, over a third 99 (32.5%) were of secondary presentation with fungal skin infections 26 (26.2%) being the most common. Secondary presentation was more common among males (p=0.005) and showed increased prevalence among those of higher social status (p=0.034).

Conclusions: Skin disorders occurred in about 1in 10 children seen at the general outpatient clinic with a predominance of infective skin disorders. In about a third of the children, the skin disorders were not the main reason for presentation and this was most common with the fungal dermatoses.  This emphasizes the need to improve identification among health care practitioners to aid prompt and adequate treatment of children with skin disorders.

Keywords: Skin disorders, children, spectrum